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City and Nation branding

Academic Literature

Ahmad, Muhamad Fazil, Zulhamri Bin Abdullah, Ezhar Bin Tamam, and Jusang Bin Bolong. (2013). "Determinant Attributes of City Brand Personality That Influence Strategic Communication." Canadian Social Science no. 9 (2):34-41.

Ahuvia, A. (2012) “The Social Marketing of Peace: Grassroots Movements, US Foreign Policy and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict” Israel Affairs. 18 (1) pp. 54-73.

Balestrini, P. R. & Gamble, P. R. (2011) “Confronting EU Unpopularity: The Contribution of Political Marketing”Contemporary Politics. 17 (1) pp. 89-107.

Choi, DaeYong, and Pa Suk Kim. (2014). "Promoting a Policy Initiative for Nation Branding: The Case of South Korea." Journal of Comparative Asian Development no. 13 (2):346-368.

Chiu, Belinda H. Y. (2007). Brand USA: Democratic Propaganda in the Third Social Space. The Whitehead Journal of International Diplomacy and International Relations, 131-143.

Ciovacco, C. (2009). "The Contours of Al Qaeda's Media Strategy." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 32(10): 853-875.

Cooper, James (2013) 'Superior to anything I had seen in the States: The Thatcherisation of Republican strategy in 1980 and 1984' Journal of Transatlantic Studies (11/1) pp 1-21

Desmarais, Fabrice. (2015). "Caught in an inconvenient nation-branding promise: the problematic ‘100% pure New Zealand'." Interdisciplinary Environmental Review no. 16 (1):1-16.

Dinardi, C. (2017) ‘Cities for sale: Contesting city branding and cultural policies in Buenos Aires’, Urban Studies, 54(1), pp. 85–101.

Dinnie, Keith. "Japan's Nation Branding: Recent Evolution and Potential Future Paths." Japan aktuell XVI, no. 3 (2008): 52-65.

Dinnie, Keith. "Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice." Oxford, Burlington MA: Butterworth-Heinemann(2008). (2008): 264.

Eshuis, Jasper, Erik Braun and Erik-Hans Klijn (2013). "Place marketing as governance strategy: an assessment of obstacles in place marketing and their effects on attracting target groups." Public Administration Review 73(3): 507-516.

Fan, Ying. (2008). "Soft power: Power of attraction or confusion?" Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 4(2): 147.

Fletcher, Joseph F., Bastedo, Heather & Hove, Jennifer. (2009). Losing Heart: Declining Support and the Political Marketing of the Afghanistan Mission. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 42(4), 911-937.

Georgatos, Leslie. (2007). Brand AmericaTM: Exploring the Appropriate Role of Marketing Strategies in Public Diplomacy. Boothe Prize Essays, 5-18.

Gouliamos, Kosta and Antonis L. Theocharous. 2008. "Harming Democracy in Mediolatry Societies: Decoding the Marketing of War and Animosities through Photo Images." Journal of Political Marketing 7(3):338 - 362.

Headley, James, Andreas Reitzig, Joe Burton (eds) (2012), Public participation in foreign policy Palgrave Macmillan.

Herstein, Ram, and Ron Berger. (2013). "A country as a brand: Israel's evolving branding strategy." Journal of Brand Strategy no. 2 (2):177-188.

Holland, J. (2012) “Blair’s War on Terror: Selling Intervention to Middle England” British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 14 (1) pp. 74-95.

Hulsse, Rainer. (2009). "The Catwalk Power: Germany's new foreign image policy." Journal of International Relations and Development 12(3): 293-316.

Iwabuchi, Koichi. (2015). "Pop-culture diplomacy in Japan: soft power, nation branding and the question of ‘international cultural exchange’." International Journal of Cultural Policy no. 21 (4):419-432.

Jansen, Sue Curry. "Designer Nations: Neo-Liberal Nation Branding - Brand Estonia." Social identities 14, no. 1 (2008): 121-42.

Lauck-Dunlop, Penny L. "Marketing War: A Case Study Comparison of Wars between the United States and Iraq." Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 69, no. 06 (2008): 2441.

Lucarelli, Andrea, and Massimo Giovanardi. (2016). "The political nature of brand governance: a discourse analysis approach to a regional brand building process." Journal of Public Affairs no. 16 (1):16-27.

Marland, Alex. (2014). "If Seals Were Ugly, Nobody Would Give a Damn: Propaganda, Nationalism, and Political Marketing in the Canadian Seal Hunt." Journal of Political Marketing no. 13 (1/2):66-84.

McKie, David and Margalit Toledano (2013), Public relations and nation building: Influencing Israel(Routledge)

Milner, J. (2011). Ousiders in Their Own Back Yard: the Failure of International Political Marketing by Israel and Turkey. Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition". Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Molleda, Juan-Carlos (2011) ‘Global Political Public Relations, Public Diplomacy, and Corporate Foreign Policy', chapter 13 in Strömbäck Jesper & Spiro Kiousis (2011) (eds) The Routledge handbook of political public relations, Routledge

Mozes, T. and G. Weimann (2010). "The e-marketing strategy of Hamas." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 33(3): 211-225.

Nimijean, Richard (2006b). Brand Canada: The Brand State and the Decline of the Liberal Party. Inroads, 19, 84-93.

Nimijean, Richard. (2006a). The Politics of Branding Canada: The International-Domestic Nexus and the Rethinking of Canada's Place in the World. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Canadienses/Mexican Journal of Canadian Studies, 1(11), 67-85.

Nye, Joseph S. (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York; Basic Books.

O'Shaughnessy, N. "Selling Hitler: Propaganda and the Nazi Brand." Journal of public affairs 9, no. 1 (2009): 55.

Pasotti, Eleonora (2009) Political Branding in Cities: the Decline of Machine Politics in Bogotá, Naples and Chicago (Cambridge University Press).

Pătraşcu, D. Cristina. (2014). "The Politics of Image and Nation Branding in Post-Communist Countries. Branding Policies in Romania." Public Administration & Regional Studies no. 13 (1):40-48.

Potter, E. H. (2009). Branding Canada: Projecting Canada's Soft Power through Public Diplomacy. Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press.

Pyles, Nathan. "Building Political Will : Branding the Nuclear-Free-World Movement." The Nonproliferation Review 15, no. 3 (2008): 441-58.

Quelch, John A. & Jocz, Katherine A. (2009). Can Brand Obama Rescue Brand America? Brown Journal of World Affairs, 16(1), 163-178. see

Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard, and Henrik Merkelsen. (2014). "The risks of nation branding as crisis response: A case study of how the Danish government turned the Cartoon Crisis into a struggle with Globalization." Place Branding and Public Diplomacy no. 10:230-248.

Rose, Jonathan. 2010. “The branding of states: The uneasy marriage of marketing to politics.” Journal of Political Marketing 9(4): 254-275. 

Rosenblatt, Alan J. (1998). Aggressive Foreign Policy Marketing: Public Response to Reagan's 1983 Address on Lebanon and Grenada. Political Behaviour, 20(3), 225-240.

Rutherford, Paul. (2004). Weapons of Mass Persuasion: Marketing the War Against Iraq. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Song, Young-A, and Yongjun Sung. (2013). "Antecedents of Nation Brand Personality." Corporate Reputation Review no. 16:80-94.

Sun, H. "International Political Marketing: A Case Study of United States Soft Power and Public Diplomacy."Journal of public affairs 8, no. 3 (2008): 165.

True, J. (2003) “The Re-Branding of National Identity.” In R. Miller ed. New Zealand Government and Politics. Pp. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Varga, Somogy. (2013). "The politics of Nation Branding: Collective identity and public sphere in the neoliberal state." Philosophy Social Criticism no. 39 (8):825-845.

Volcic, Zala. "Former Yugoslavia on the World Wide Web: Commercialization and Branding of Nation-States."International communication gazette 70, no. 5 (2008): 395-413.

Wood, S. (2017) ‘Rebranding the Nation: Germany’s Image Politics’, International Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 54(2), pp. 161–181



NZ Story

New NZ Nation Brand: NZ Story - Open spaces, open hearts and open minds [3.45m] video at

Branding various countries

Australia – where the bloody hell are you?

"Effectiveness and Efficiency in Nation Branding" A Lecture by Petar Turčinović (Ambassador of Croatia to Montenegro) 34:20

The Kosovo Branding Campaign Ad 1:00,122,16  

Korea’s Brand Strategy and Tourism Growth 47:03 Holmfridur Hardardottir, General Manager of FutureBrand North America, a leading international brand and design consultancy firm, and Luis Maravi, marketing manager at Korea Tourism Organization (KTO), discuss branding, Korea’s ranking, and KTO’s plans to increase tourism to Korea. Korea’s tourism, one component of a nation’s brand ranking, has risen from 34th in 2008 to 22nd in the United Nations World Tourism Organization’s ranking of visiting tourists, with over 12 million visitors in 2013.

Branding Nuclear-free

Building Political Will: Branding the Nuclear-Free-World Movement


Trudeau makes brand Canada suddenly “hip” – The National Observer (January 2016) – Article discussing claims made in the New York Times that Trudeau’s election to prime minister has suddenly made Canada be perceived as “hip” by the rest of the world. - See also: With the Rise of Justin Trudeau, Canada Is Suddenly… Hip? – New York Times

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