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Static or Broadcast Political Marketing Communication

Political organizations and politicians use marketing communications all the time to achieve a wide range of goals, including improving the reputation of a government, launching a new brand, communicating a message, countering negative attacks from the opposition, educating voters, placing an issue on the agenda and increasing support for a politician or policy. Marketing helps to ensure that politicians understand who they should communicate with, when, on what topic and how; i.e. that communications are conducted strategically. Static communication (what goes from the political organization or figure to the public ) includes the marketing communication of candidates; campaign communication (research-led communication, market-oriented advertising, insights marketing, guerrilla marketing and celebrity marketing); communication tools (e.g. get out the vote, direct marketing, targeted communication and mobile/virtual marketing); selling policy (including government advertising and social marketing, and looking at policy concerned with involvement in war); communicating change, crisis and issues management; and integrated marketing communications.

Academic Literature

Farrell, David M. and Martin Wortmann (1987). Party Strategies in the Electoral Market: Political Marketing in West Germany, Britain and Ireland. European Journal of Political Research, 15: 297-318.

Gutekunst, Marco (2010),  The Marketing of Political Parties: Differences in the Perception of Marketing Techniques VDM Verlag Dr. Müller

Hughes, Andrew (2018) Market Driven Political Advertising: Social, Digital and Mobile Marketing Palgrave Macmillan

Johnson, Dennis W. (2012) ‘Campaigning in the Twenty-first Century: Change and Continuity in American Political Marketing' Chapter 16 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Routledge.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2009).  Political Marketing: Principles and Applications (First edition) Routledge Chapter 7 Marketing communication and campaigns

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2011) The Political Marketing Game, Palgrave Macmillan Chapter 5 Communicating

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2014) Political Marketing: Principles and Applications 2nd edition. Routledge Chapter 6 Static political marketing communication

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) (2014). Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Lloyd, J. (2009). "Keeping Both the Baby and the Bathwater: scoping a new model of political marketing communication." International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing 6(2): 119-135.

Marland, Alex (2012), Amateurs versus Professionals: The 1993 and 2006 Canadian federal elections, Chapter 4 in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Marland, Alex (2016). Brand Command: Canadian Politics and Democracy in the Age of Message Control. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Martin, V. (2009). "Emotions used in a strategy of seduction: political marketing and the study of speeches. The case of the 2007 French presidential elections." Revue Francaise du Marketing 225: 51-65.

McGough, S. (2005). Political marketing in Irish politics: the case of Sinn Féin. In D. Lilleker and J. Lees-Marshment (Eds.), Political marketing: a comparative perspective. Manchester University Press.

Newman, Bruce (1999). The Mass Marketing of Politics: Democracy in an Age of Manufactured Images. Beverley Hills: Sage Publications.

Norman, Peng, and Hackley Chris. "Political Marketing Communications Planning in the Uk and Taiwan."Marketing Intelligence & Planning 25, no. 5 (2007)

Vigso, O. (2010). "Extemist Stickers: Epideictic Rhetoric, Political Marketing, and Tribal Demarcation." Journal of Visual Literacy 29(1): 28-46.


Giving us what we want? - The Persuaders program [13 m] This explores the use of research in communication, through focusing on the US consultant Frank Luntz. Raises ethical issues about whether marketing really is about elites listening to voters, or in fact just another tool to sell their product to us.

Crafting communication

"Political Marketing" 3:26

Channel 4 News (2018). ‘Cambridge Analytica uncovered: Secret filming reveals election tricks’. Channel 4 News, (accessed 1 September 2018)


Why Political Advertising Doesn’t Work Any MoreMarketing Magazine UK (March 2015) – Article highlighting the decreasing importance of political advertising and the demise of political brands in the run-up to the 2015 UK general election.

BBC (2017) ‘The digital guru who helped Donald Trump to the presidency’. BBC,

CBS (2018). ‘Who is Brad Parscale’. CBS, (accessed 1 September 2018.

Center for Responsive Politics (2017). ‘Expenditures Breakdown, Donald Trump, 2016 cycle’. Open Secrets, (accessed September 1 2018)

Ducharme, Jamie (2018). ‘What to know about Brad Parscale, Donald Trump's 2020 campaign manager’. Time, (accessed September 1 2018)

The Daily Show (2012). Broadcast, Comedy Central,–2012/judy-smith  (accessed April 19 2012).

Letourneau, Nancy (2018). ‘Why was Cambridge Analytica so interested in tapping into our fears?Washington Monthly, (accessed 1 September 2018).

Winston, Joel (2016). ‘How the Trump campaign built an identity database and used Facebook ads to win the election’ Medium (accessed June 12 2018).

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