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Marketing Communication of Candidates & Leaders

Academic Literature

Bal, A. S., L. Pitt, et al. (2009). "Caricatures, cartoons, spoofs and satires: political brands as butts." Journal of Public Affairs 9(4): 229-237.

Berger, Arthur Asa. (2016). ‘Marketing the President: political marketing’. In Arthur A. Berger, Marketing and American Consumer Culture. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 93-100.

Busby, Robert. (2009). Marketing the Populist Politician: the demotic democrat. Basingstoke; New York, Palgrave Macmillan

Busby, Robert (2012), ‘Selling Sarah Palin: political marketing and the ‘Wal-Mart Mom'' Chapter 17 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Routledge.

Busby, Robert (2014). ‘Mama Grizzlies: Republican female candidates and the political marketing dilemma’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Campus, D. (2010). "Mediatization and Personalization of Politics in Italy and France: the Cases of Berlusconi and Sarkozy." International Journal of Press/Politics 15(2): 219-235.

Cotrim Maciera, J. (2005). Change to win? The 2002 general election PT marketing strategy in Brazil. In D. Lilleker and J. Lees-Marshment (Eds.), Political marketing: a comparative perspective. Manchester University Press.

Davies, G. and T. Mian (2010). "The Reputation of the Party Leader and of the Party Being Led." European Journal of Marketing 44(3-4): 331-350.

De Landtsheer, Christ'l, Philippe De Vries, and Dieter Vertessen (2008). "Political Impression Management: How Metaphors, Sound Bites, Appearance Effectiveness, and Personality Traits Can Win Elections." Journal of Political Marketing 7, no. 3-4: 217-38.

De Vreis, Phillippe, Christ'l De Landtsheer, and Soetkin Kesteloot. 2009. Image Supremacy? Lifting the veil in Belgium. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Elder, Edward. (2016). "Market-Oriented Governing Leaders’ Communication: John Key and Barack Obama." Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing no. 28 (1):5-21.

Gaber, Ivor and Coral James O'Connor (2016) ‘The Battle for Brighton: the view from cyberspace’ Chapter 8 in Political Marketing and the 2015 UK General Election edited by Darren G. Lilleker and Mark Pack (Palgrave Macmillan)

Garzia, Diego. (2013). "Can Candidates' Image Win Elections? A Counterfactual Assessment of Leader Effects in the Second Italian Republic." Journal of Political Marketing no. 12 (4):348-361.

Ingram, Peter and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2002). ‘The Anglicisation of political marketing: how Blair “out-marketed” Clinton’. Journal of Public Affairs, 2(2): 44–56.

Lloyd, Jenny (2012) ‘Something Old, Something New? Modelling political communication in the 2010 UK general election' Chapter 19 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Routledge.

Newman, Bruce I. (2001). ‘An assessment of the 2000 US presidential election: a set of political marketing guidelines’. Journal of Public Affairs, 1(3): 210.

O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas J. and Stephan C. Henneberg (2007). The Selling of the President 2004: A Marketing Perspective. Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 7(3): 249-68.

Robinson, Claire (2012) ‘Interacting Leaders' Chapter 20 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Routledge.

Rottinghaus, Brandon, and Irina Alberro (2005). Rivaling the PRI: The Image Management of Vicente Fox and the Use of Public Opinion Polling in the 2000 Mexican Election. Latin American Politics and Society, vol. 47(2): 143-58.

Scammell, Margaret (1995). Designer Politics: How Elections are Won. St. Martin's Press.

Scammell, Margaret (1996). The odd couple: Marketing and Maggie. European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30(10/11): 114-126.

Schweiger, Gunter and Michaela Aadami (1999). ‘The nonverbal image of politicians and political parties’. In Bruce Newman (ed.) The Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Bill Clinton: his personal story ‘US Democrats - Bill Clinton 1992 Video 5 Part 1’

Nz National 2017 Bill’s Story (Bill English)

David Cameron in a 2010 Conservative General Election Broadcast 4.52

NZ Labour “Mary” ad (2008) 0:30

"Peter Dunne Replies to DomPost" 1.50

“David Cameron’s Image” 0:34

Strategic attack ads

Negative attack ads

Amusing attack ads

Amusing ads

Funny advert with the wife pleading with voters to re-elect her husband - A really funny way of doing an ad to convey the candidates commitment - very funny and engaging


O'Leary, Noreen (2009). ‘GMMB’. Mediaweek, 19(24) OR Brandweek vol 50 issue 24 see

What Justin Trudeau’s Remarkable Rise Teaches Us About the Future of Political MarketingMedium (December 2015) – Article discussing the successes behind Trudeau’s style of campaigning and political marketing, particularly praising his ability to “create powerful moments that contain massive viral potential.”

UK PM Gordon Brown




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