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Creating unity & considering members/primary voters

Academic Literature

Bendle, Neil, and Mihaela-Alina Nastasoiu (2014). ‘Primary elections and US political marketing’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Bendle, Neil, Joseph Ryoo and Alina Nastasoiu (2018). ‘The 2016 US primaries: Parties and candidates in the world of big data’. In Jamie Gillies (ed.) Political Marketing in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 65-80.

Dean, Dianne and Robin Croft (2001). ‘Friends and relations: long-term approaches to political campaigning’. European Journal of Marketing, 35(11/12): 1197–216.

Gouliamos et al. (2013, 4) - Political Marketing: Strategic Campaign Culture Edited by Kōstas Gouliamos, A. Theocharous and Bruce Newman Published by Routledge, Routledge Research in Political Communication, 2013.

Hughes, Andrew and Stephen Dann (2010). ‘Australian political marketing: substance backed by style’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Jesper Strömbäck and Chris Rudd (eds) Global Political Marketing. London: Routledge, 82–95.

Knuckey, Jonathan and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2005). ‘American political marketing: George W. Bush and the Republican Party’. In Darren Lilleker and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing: A Comparative Perspective. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2001). Political Marketing and British Political Parties: The Party’s Just Begun. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2009). ‘Examples of internal blockage to market-oriented strategy: the UK Conservatives, 1997–2001’. Case study 6.2 in Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. London and New York: Routledge, 154–55.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2011). The Political Marketing Game. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer and Robin Pettitt (2010). UK political marketing: a question of leadership? In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Jesper Strömbäck and Chris Rudd (eds) Global Political Marketing. London: Routledge, 218-234.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer, Jesper Strömbäck and Chris Rudd (eds) (2010). Global Political Marketing. London: Routledge.

Leukona, Juan Ignacio Marcos. 2009. The problems of implementing medium-/long-term planning for political parties in Spain. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications 1st edition, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Lloyd, Jenny (2005). ‘Marketing politics ... saving democracy’. In Adrian Sargeant and Walter Wymer (eds) The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Marketing. New York: Routledge, 317–36.

Medvic, Stephen K. (2006). ‘Understanding campaign strategy “deliberate priming” and the role of professional political consultants’. Journal of Political Marketing, 5(1/2): 11–32.

Ormrod, Robert P. (2005). ‘A conceptual model of political market orientation’, in Walter Wymer and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds), Current Issues in Political Marketing. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

Ormrod, Robert P., Stephan C. Henneberg, Nick Forward, James Miller, and Leigh Tymms (2007). Political Marketing in Untraditional Campaigns: The Case of David Cameron's Conservative Party Leadership Victory.Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 7(3): 235-48.

Ormrod, R. P. and S. C. Henneberg (2010). "An investigation into the relationship between political activity levels and political market orientation." European Journal of Marketing 44(3/4): 382-400.

Pettit, Robin T. 2009. Resisting Marketing: the case of the British Labour Party under Blair. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Pich, Christopher, Dianne Dean, and Khanyapuss Punjaisri. (2016). "Political brand identity: An examination of the complexities of Conservative brand and internal market engagement during the 2010 UK General Election campaign." Journal of Marketing Communications no. 22 (1):100-117.

Sackman, Adrian I. (1996). The Learning Curve towards New Labour: Neil Kinnock's Corporate Party 1983-92. European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30(10/11): 147-58.

Schneider, Helmut, and Frederik Ferié. (2015). "How to Manage a Party Brand: Empirical Perspectives on Electoral Probability and Internal Conflict." Journal of Political Marketing no. 14 (1/2):64-95.

Smith, Gareth (2009). ‘Conceptualizing and testing brand personality in British politics’. Journal of Political Marketing, 8(3): 209–32.

Smith, Gareth and Alan French (2009). ‘The political brand: a consumer perspective’. Marketing Theory, 9(2): 209–26.

Wring, Dominic (2005). The Politics of Marketing the Labour Party. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.



Where Labour went wrong – election review leakedNewshub (June 2015)– News report discussing the Labour party’s internal review in to what went wrong for the party in the 2014 NZ election – highlights the lack of financial resources, a lack of campaign preparation, internal disunity, a lack of message discipline, and complex and confusing policies as being factors in Labour’s defeat.


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