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Pre-Election Delivery

Academic Literature

Dinas, E. (2008) Big expectations, small outcomes: the impact of leaders' personal appeal in the 2004 Greek election, Electoral Studies vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 505-517.

Elder, Edward. (2016). "Market-Oriented Governing Leaders’ Communication: John Key and Barack Obama." Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing no. 28 (1):5-21.

Elder, E., Ed. (2016). Marketing leadership in government: communicating responsiveness, leadership and credibility. Palgrave studies in political marketing and management. London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Elder, Edward (2018) Communicating Market-Oriented Leadership in power and opposition. Chapter 7 in Lees-Marshment, J (2018) Political marketing and management in the 2017 New Zealand election edited by J Lees-Marshment Palgrave Macmillan pp 85-100.

Esselment, Anna (2012a). ‘Delivering in government and getting results in minorities and coalitions'. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. London and New York: Routledge, 303–15.

Esselment, Anna (2012b). ‘Market orientation in a minority government: the challenges of product delivery'. In Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC, 123–38.

Kotzaivazoglou, Iordanis (2014) Case Study 8.1 ‘The Importance of Delivering: Lessons from Greek reality’ in Political Marketing: Principles and Applications 2nd edition Routledge.

Lederer, Andreas, Fritz Plasser and Christian Scheucher (2005). ‘The rise and fall of populism in Austria – a political marketing perspective’. In Darren G. Lilleker and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing: A Comparative Perspective. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Pp 132-147.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2001). Political Marketing and British Political Parties: The Party’s Just Begun. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2008). Political Marketing and British Political Parties, 2nd edn. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2011) The Political Marketing Game. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan Chapter 6 on Managing Delivery

Lees-Marshment, J (2018), ‘Messy Marketing in the 2017 New Zealand Election: the incomplete market-orientation of the Labour and National Parties’ Chapter 4 in Political marketing and management in the 2017 New Zealand election edited by J Lees-Marshment Palgrave pp. 43-66

Praprotnik, K. (2017). "Jurisdiction, time, and money: The role of resources in pledge fulfillment." Party Politics 23(6): 848-859.

Steen, Jens Jonatan (2009). ‘When politics becomes contractual: a case from Denmark’. Case Study 8.3 in Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. London and New York: Routledge, 230–2.

Waterman, R., Jenkins-Smith, H. & Silva, C. (1999) ‘The Expectations Gap Thesis: Public Attitudes towards an Incumbent President'. Journal of Politics, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 944-966.

Yousaf, Salman (2016). ‘Political marketing in Pakistan: Exaggerated promises, delusive claims, marketable development projects and change advocacy’ Journal of Public Affairs, 16(2): 140-155.


Canadian 2015 election

Justin Trudeau ad conveying he was ready to govern - ‘Ready’ August 2015

Canadian PM Conservative Stephen Harper ‘Proven Leadership’ ad conveys difficulties of leadership, May 2015

UK 2010 election

Scaling back promises mid election - BBC media report on how the UK parties reduced their promises in the 2010 election:

Making plans clear

Example of effective and ineffective communication on this by John Key (National leader) and David Cunliffe (Labour leader) in the last TV debate in the 2014 NZ election when both are asked to lay out their  first 100 days plan -


CNN, 2010, Americans Split on Obama's First Year, Poll Finds -

Steinhauser, P. 2008, Poll Finds Great Expectations for Obama, CNN -

McCullagh, D. 2008, Obama Plans Gone From Transition Website, November 11, CBS News -


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