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Academic Literature

Atkinson, Robert D. and Andrew Leigh (2003). Serving the Stakeholders. Customer-Oriented E-Government: Can We Ever Get There? Journal of Political Marketing, vol. 2(3/4): 159-81.

Barko, Julia. 2009. The Online Revolution. In Campaigning for president 2008 : strategy and tactics, new voices and new techniques edited by D. W. Johnson. New York: Routledge.

Borins, Sanford (2009) From online candidate to online president. International journal of public administration 32(9).

Cogburn, Derrick L. and Fatima K. Espinoza-Vasquez (2011). ‘From networked nominee to networked nation: examining the impact of Web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign’. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1/2): 189–213.

Coursaris, C. K. and S. Papagiannidis (2009). "Online Political Marketing in Greece: An evaluation of the 2007 national elections and two case studies." Computers in Human Behavior 25(4): 853-861.

Foot, Kirsten, Steven M. Schneider, Michael Xenos, and Meghan Dougherty (2009). "Candidates' Web Practices in the 2002 U.S. House, Senate, and Gubernatorial Elections." Journal of Political Marketing 8, no. 2: 147-67.

Hirzalla, F. and L. V. Zoonen (2010). "Affective Political Marketing Online: Emotionality in the Youth Sites of Greenpeace and WWF." International Journal of Learning and Media (IJLM) 2(1): 39-54.

Hurme, Tommi. (2010). Online Campaign Strategy, Web 2.0 Tools, and Voter Preference in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election. CEU Political Science, 4(4), 566-606.

Jackson, Nigel (2005). ‘Vote winner or a nuisance: email and elected politicians’ relationship with their constituents’. In Walter W. Wymer, Jr. and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Current Issues in Political Marketing. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 91–108 [OR Jackson, N. (2005) ‘Vote Winner or a Nuisance: Email and Elected Politicians' Relationship with their Constituents'. Journal of Nonproft and Public Sector Marketing, vol. 14, pp. 91-108]

Jackson, Nigel (2006). ‘Banking online: the use of the internet by political parties to build relationships with voters’. In Darren G. Lilleker, Nigel Jackson and Richard Scullion (eds) The Marketing of Political Parties. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Pp 157-184.

Jackson, Nigel (2009). ‘UK MPs and the marketing of their websites.’ In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Jackson, Nigel A. and Darren G. Lilleker (2004). Just Public Relations or an Attempt at Interaction? British Mps in the Press, on the Web And "In Your Face". European Journal of Communication, vol. 19(4): 507-33.

Jackson, Nigel and Darren G. Lilleker (2014). ‘Brand management and relationship marketing in online environments’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Jackson, Nigel A., Darren G. Lilleker and Eva Schweitzer (2012). ‘Political marketing in an online election environment: short-term sales or long-term relationships?' In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. London and New York: Routledge, 286–300.

Jackson, Nigel and Darren G. Lilleker (2014). ‘Brand management and relationship marketing in online environments’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Jain, Arpit, Anil Kumar, and Manoj Kumar Dash. (2015). "Information technology revolution and transition marketing strategies of political parties: analysis through AHP." International Journal of Business Information Systems no. 20 (1).

Kitcat, Jason, and Ian Brown. "Observing the English and Scottish 2007 E-Elections." Parliamentary Affairs 61, no. 2 (2008): 380-95.

Kruikemeier, Sanne. (2014). How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 131–139.

Lappas, Georgios, Stavros Chatzopoulos, and Prodromos Yannas. "Parliamentary Candidates Running on the Web for the 2004 Greek National Elections." Journal of Political Marketing 7, no. 3 (2008): 256 - 77.

Leppaniemi, M., H. Karjaluoto, et al. (2010). "Targeting Young Voters in a Political Campaign: Empirical insights into an Interactive Digital Marketing Campaign in the 2007 Finnish General Election." Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 11(2): 1522-9076.

Lilleker, D. G., Koc-Michalska, K., Schweitzer, E. J., Jacunski, M., Jackson, N. & Vedel, T. (2011) “Informing, Engaging, Mobilizing or Interacting: Searching for a European Model of Web Campaigning” European Journal of Communication. 26 (3) pp. 195-213.

Lilleker, Darren G. (2015). "Interactivity and Branding: Public Political Communication as a Marketing Tool." Journal of Political Marketing no. 14 (1/2):111-128.

Middleton, Gavin (2009). ‘ACT New Zealand Party and the limits of technological marketing’. Case study 7.4 in Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. London and New York: Routledge, 186–8.

Miller, William J. (2013). "The Use of New Media in Modern Political Campaigns." Journal of Political Marketing no. 12 (4):326-347.

Mozes, T. and G. Weimann (2010). "The e-marketing strategy of Hamas." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 33(3): 211-225.

Papagiannidis, Savvas, Constantinos K. Coursaris and Michael Bourlakis (2012). ‘Do websites influence the nature of voting intentions? The case of two national elections in Greece’. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2): 300–7.

Ridge-Newman, Anthony and Mary Mitchell (2016) ‘Digital political marketing’ Chapter 7 in Political Marketing and the 2015 UK General Election edited by Darren G. Lilleker and Mark Pack (Palgrave Macmillan)

Shaw, Daron R. (2002). How the Bush and Gore Campaigns Conceptualized and Used the Internet in 2000. Journal of Political Marketing, vol. 1(1): 39 - 65.

Small, Tamara (2012). ‘Are we friends yet? Online relationship marketing by political parties’. In Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC, 193–208.

Turcotte, André and Vincent Raynauld (2014). ‘Boutique populism: the emergence of the Tea Party movement in the age of digital politics’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Williams, C. B., Aylesworth, A., & Chapman, K. J. (2002). The 2000 E-Campaign for U.S. Senate. Journal of Political Marketing, 1(4), 39-63.

Williams, C. B., Gulati, Girish J., & Foxman, Ellen R. (2009). What's In an Endorsement? An Analysis of Web-Based Marketing in the 2004 Presidential Campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 8(3), 173-189.

Williams, Christine B. and Girish J. ‘Jeff’ Gulati (2014). ‘Relationship marketing in social media practice: perspectives, limitations and potential’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Wills, D. and S. Reeves (2009). "Facebook as a Political Weapon: Information in Social Networks." British Politics 4: 265-281.

Wu, H. D. and N. S. Dahmen (2010). "Web Sponsorship and Campaign Effects: Assessing the Difference Between Positive and Negative Web Sites." Journal of Political Marketing 9(4): 314-329.

Zittel, T. (2009). "Lost in Technology? Political Parties and the Online Campaigns of Constituency Candidates in Germany's Mixed Member Electoral System." Journal of Information Technology & Politics 6(3 & 4): 298-311.


Video which gives shots of Obamas use of online from campaign to government...The story of us five years on -

New form of e-marketing - interactive games; see New Zealand Labour and NZ Greens for a campaign in May 2011 against partial asset sales and media discussion

“Citizentube: David Cameron” 5:29


Former Australian PM John Howard discusses online communication (2007) 0:51

“Gordon Brown on YouTube” 1:16

“” (2008) 4:02

“Facebook Faceoff: Helen Clark” (NZ 2008) 2:13

“Yes We Can: Obama Music Video” 4:30

“Obama Girl: I've Got a Crush on Obama” 3:19

"The Youtube Interview with President Obama" 35.47

"David Cameron A World View Interview" 25.07 

Political Marketing on Social Media with Rob Waller - 27:56 -  or

Election 2014: Talking techStuff (September 2014) – Series of interviews with 6 NZ politicians during the 2014 election campaign where they outline their party’s digital strategies.


Stirland, Sarah Lai (2008) 'Inside Obama's Surging Net-Roots Campaign' in Wired GQ; excerpts from accessed 1 April 2008.

Learmonth, Michael (2009). "Social Media Paves Way to White House." Advertising Age 80, no. 11: 16. See 

Lowry, Tom (2008). "Obama's Secret Digital Weapon." Business Week, no. 4091: 56.

How social media lost the New Zealand electionNetGuide (September 2014) – Article arguing that “the noise of social media is a far cry from the real world” during elections, using the audience numbers from various parties’ social media pages compared with their vote share during the 2014 NZ campaign to back up this claim.

What Obama can teach Canadian politicians about Content MarketingSteamFeed (May 2013) – Article discussing the 10 social media/content marketing lessons Canadian politicians could learn from the successful 2008 and 2012 Obama campaigns.

Malcolm Turnbull’s social media savvy: 2016 will be the year of social campaigningMarketing Magazine Australia (September 2015) – Opinion piece from social media analyst Sean Sammon highlighting Turnbull’s sophistication in his use of social media. Also highlights some features of social media campaigning, such as the rise of ‘image authenticity’, and the ease with which it can be used to ‘sell’ a politician.

UK 2015 General Election

How digital will shape political party campaigns in the 2015 electionMarketing Magazine UK (February 2015) – Article claiming the use of digital/online media in the run up to the 2015 UK election will redefine the relationship between parties and the mainstream media. Highlights the influence of user-generated content, the importance of using ad agencies, and the influence of fringe groups in the digital realm.

Welcome to the social media election that never wasThe Guardian (April 2015) – Article highlighting the lack of social media sophistication in the UK 2015 election campaign from all parties involved.

The election won’t be won or lost on social media, but it’s an essential platformThe Telegraph (April 2015) – Opinion piece arguing that while the 2015 UK election would not be won solely on social media, it is still “an essential platform for engagement if parties are to reach a mass audience.”

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