Skip to content


Academic Literature

Binstock, Robert H. and Scott Davidson (2012). ‘Political marketing and segmentation in aging democracies'. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. London and New York: Routledge, 20–33.

Burton, Michael John (2012). ‘Strategic voter selection’. InJennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. New York: Routledge, 34–47.

Burton, Michael John and Tasha Miracle (2014). ‘The Emergence of voter targeting: learning to send the right message to the right voters’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Davidson, Scott (2005). Grey Power, School Gate Mums and the Youth Vote: Age as a Key Factor in Voter Segmentation and Engagement in the 2005 UK General Election. Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 21(9/10): 1179-92.

Dermody, Janine and Stuart Hamner-Lloyd (2006). ‘A marketing analysis of the 2005 general election advertising campaigns’. In Daren G. Lilleker, Nigel Jackson and Richard Scullion (eds) The Marketing of Political Parties. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 101-31.

Fell, Dafydd and Isabelle Cheng (2010). Testing the Market-Oriented Model of Political Parties in a Non-Western Context: The Case of Taiwan. Chapter 12 in Global Political Marketing edited by J Lees-Marshment, Jesper Stromback and Chris Rudd, Routledge. 175-188.

Geiselhart, Karin, Mary Griffiths and Bronwen FitzGerald (2003). What Lies Beyond Service Delivery- an Australian Perspective. Journal of Political Marketing, vol. 2(3/4): 213-33.

Gelders, Dave, and Øyvind Ihlen, (2010). ‘Government communication about potential policies: public relations, propaganda or both?’ Public Relations Review, 36(1): 59–62.

Headley, James, Andreas Reitzig and Joe Burton (eds) (2011). Public Participation in Foreign Policy.Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Henneberg, S. C., & O'Shaughnessy, N. J. (2009). Political Relationship Marketing: some macro/micro thoughts. Journal Of Marketing Management25(1/2), 5-29.

LaMarre, Heather L., and Yoshikazu Suzuki-Lambrecht. (2013). "Tweeting democracy? Examining Twitter as an online public relations strategy for congressional campaigns’." Public Relations Review no. 39 (4):360-368.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer and Alex Marland (2012). ‘Canadian political consultants' perspectives about political marketing’. Canadian Journal of Communication, 37(2): 333–43.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer, Yannick Dufresne, Gregory Eady, Danny Osborne, Cliff van der Linden, and Jack Vowles. (2015). "Vote Compass in the 2014 New Zealand election: hearing the voice of New Zealand voters." Political Science no. 69 (2):94-124.

Lilleker, Darren G. (2005a). ‘Political marketing: the cause of an emerging democratic deficit in Britain?’ In Walter W. Wymer, Jr. and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Current Issues in Political Marketing. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 5–26.

Lilleker, Darren G. (2005b). ‘The impact of political marketing on internal party democracy’. Parliamentary Affairs, 58(3): 570–84.

Mandle, Jay R. (2013). "The Political Market." Journal of Economic Issues no. 47 (1):135-146.

Marland, Alex (2012). ‘Yes we can (fundraise): The ethics of marketing in political fundraising’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. New York: Routledge, 164–76.

McGough, Sean (2009). ‘Political marketing, democracy and terrorism: Ireland highlights the dangers’. Case study 10.3 in Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. London and New York: Routledge, 288–90.

Mills, Stephen (2011). ‘Focus groups: myth or reality’. In Alastair Carthew and Simon Winkelmann (eds) Political Polling in Asia-Pacific. Singapore: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 27–38.

Savigny, Heather (2007). ‘Focus groups and political marketing: science and democracy as axiomatic?’ British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 9(1): 122–37.

Savigny, Heather (2008) ‘The construction of the political consumer (or politics: what not to consume)’. In Darren G. Lilleker and Richard Scullion (eds), Voters or Consumers: Imagining the Contemporary Electorate. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 35–50.

Sparrow, Nick and John Turner (2001). ‘The integrating of market research techniques in developing strategies in a more uncertain political climate’. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10): 984–1002.

Waymer, Damion. (2013). "Democracy and government public relations: Expanding the scope of “Relationship” in public relations research." Public Relations Review no. 39 (4):320-331.



Yes Prime Minister parody mocks how nature of question can produce different answers - Yes Primeminister - "The Truth Behind Opinion Polls" 1:47 or 

Informed parody of targeting and how ignoring youth as targeting them makes no sense as they don't vote - Rick's Rant from the Season Finale of Rick Mercer Report, Tuesday March 29 2011 Discusses the use of targeting in the 2011 Canadian election but also the need for youth to vote otherwise they will be considered a segment of the political market that can be ignore

Musical critique of ethnic targeting - Avvy Go and The Colour of Poverty (2011). ‘Go Ethnics Go’,, 12th April.  (accessed October, 2013) public driven mockery and critique of too much ethnic targeting



Critical discussion of whether marketing really gives citizens a voice - Giving us what we want? - The Persuaders program [13 m] This explores the use of research in communication, through focusing on the US consultant Frank Luntz. Raises ethical issues about whether marketing really is about elites listening to voters, or in fact just another tool to sell their product to us.n marketing 

E-marketing forging link between government and citizens

Political campaigning in the digital age: Lucian Despoiu at TED x Bucharest - 17:55 – discusses how online/emarketing tools and techniques can be used to create more positive links between politicians and citizens -

Media indepth discussions about technologys impact Hour long news program examines the democratic process and how technology has played a role. Co-hosted by Jonathan Alter and Lisa Mullins. Jan 26, 2014 [29 minutes]Discusses impact of technology in campaigns on democracy. Elections have always been a spectacle in the US and no expense is spared to get candidates elected. And as Obama's campaign team demonstrated, modern technologies and social media are the latest weapons in the battle for an edge. How are these new tools changing the way we elect candidates and exercise democracy? How can they be harnessed to keep those we elect accountable? Oksana is joined by Harper Reed, the former CTO for the Obama 2012 campaign, to discuss these issues.


Discussion of CBCs programme on Canadian parties appealing to the ethnic vote in 2011 with further links

Young, Sally (2005). ‘Government advertising costs us dearly’. The Age, 30 August.  (accessed 10 April, 2008)

Democrats, in a stark shift in messaging, to make big tax-break pitch for middle classThe Washington Post (January 2015) – Article discussing leading Democrats decision to attempt to address income inequality by creating more tax breaks for the middle class following the unpopularity of Obama’s economic approach the previous year.

Edit page