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Attack and Defence Strategies

Academic Literature

Marland, Alex (2003). ‘Marketing political soap: a political marketing view of selling s like soap, of electioneering as a ritual, and of electoral military analogies’. Journal of Public Affairs, 3(2): 103–115.

Vaccari, Cristian, and Marco Morini. (2014). "The Power of Smears in Two American Presidential Campaigns." Journal of Political Marketing no. 13 (1/2):19-45.


Strategic attack ads

Negative attack ads

Attack from Canadian Conservatives on Justin Trudeau -

Other examples

Amusing attack ads

Defensive ad in response to attacks


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