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Segmentation (& voter profiling)

Academic literature

Abrajano, M. & Panagopoulos, C. (2011) “Does Language Matter? The Impact of Spanish versus English-language GOTV efforts on Latino (Electoral) Turnout (USA)” American Politics Research. 39 (4) pp. 643-663.

Alabi, Joshua and Goski Alabi (2007). ‘Analysis of the effects of ethnicity on political marketing in Ghana’. International Business and Economics Research Journal, 6(4): 39–52.

Baines, Paul R. (1999). Voter segmentation and candidate positioning. In Bruce Newman (Ed.), Handbook of political marketing. Sage.

Baines, Paul R., Robert M. Worcester, David Jarrett, and Roger Mortimore (2003). Market Segmentation and Product Differentiation in Political Campaigns: A Technical Feature Perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 19(1/2): 225-249.

Bannon, Declan (2004). Marketing Segmentation and Political Marketing. Paper presented to the UK Political Studies Association. See <>

Bannon, Declan (2005). Electoral Participation And Non-Voter Segmentation. In J. Lees-Marshment and W. Wymer (Eds.), Current issues in political marketing. Haworth Press.

Barreto, M. A., Merolla, J. & Defrancesco, V. (2011) “ Multiple Dimensions of Mobilization: The Effect of Direct Contact and Political Ads on Latino Turnout in the 2000 Presidential Election” Journal of Political Marketing. 10 (4) pp. 303-327.

Braun, Alexander (2012). ‘The role of opinion research in setting campaign strategy' . In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. New York: Routledge, 7–19.

Burton, Michael John (2012). ‘Strategic voter selection', In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. New York: Routledge, 34–47.

Burton, Michael John and Tasha Miracle (2014). ‘The Emergence of voter targeting: learning to send the right message to the right voters’. In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Brian Conley and Kenneth Cosgrove (eds) Political Marketing in the US. New York: Routledge.

Butler, Patrick, and Phil Harris (2009). ‘Considerations on the evolution of political marketing theory’. Marketing Theory, 9(2): 149–64.

Chiu, K. K. S., C. R. Huston, et al. (2010). "The Role of a Psychographic Approach in Segmenting Electorates' Voting Behavior and Party Identification." Journal of Political Marketing 9(1 & 2): 34-54.

Davidson, Scott (2005). ‘Grey power, school gate mums and the youth vote: age as a key factor in voter segmentation and engagement in the 2005 UK general election’. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(9/10): 1179–92.

Davidson, Scott (2012) Going Grey: the Mediation of Politics in an Ageing Society. Ashgate  Has a chapter ‘Political marketing and the segmentation of the Grey Vote'.

Davidson, Scott and Robert H. Binstock (2012), ‘Political Marketing and Segmentation in Aging Democracies' Chapter 3 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment,  Routledge

Dufresne, Yannick and Alex Marland (2012). ‘The Canadian political market and the rules of the game’ In Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC, 22–38.

Harmer, Emily, and Dominic Wring. (2013). "Julie and the Cybermums: Marketing and Women Voters in the UK 2010 General Election." Journal of Political Marketing no. 12 (2/3):262-273.

Johnson, Dennis W. (2007). No Place for Amateurs (2nd edn). New York: Routledge.

Kim, Young. (2015). "Toward an effective government–public relationship: Organization–public relationship based on a synthetic approach to public segmentation." Public Relations Review no. 41 (4):456 - 460.

Knuckey, Jonathan (2010). ‘Political marketing in the United States: from market- towards sales-orientation?’ In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Jesper Strömbäck and Chris Rudd (eds) Global Political Marketing. London: Routledge, 96–112.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2011). The Political Marketing Game. Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Leppaniemi, M., H. Karjaluoto, et al. (2010). "Targeting Young Voters in a Political Campaign: Empirical insights into an Interactive Digital Marketing Campaign in the 2007 Finnish General Election." Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 11(2): 1522-9076.

McClurg, Scott D. & Habel, Phillip. (2010). The Segmented Electorate: Presidential Campaigns and Their Consequences in an Information Age. Dept. of Political Science Publications, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

Mihályffy, Zsuzsanna (2014) Case Study 3.2 ‘Target audience and segmentation in the 2010 Fidesz campaign’ in Political Marketing: Principles and Applications 2nd edition Routledge.

Murray, G. R. and A. Scime (2010). "Microtargeting and Electorate Segmentation: Data Mining the American National Election Studies." Journal of Political Marketing 9(3): 143-166.

Newman, Bruce I. (1999). ‘A predictive model of voter behavior – the repositioning of Bill Clinton’. in Bruce I. Newman (ed.) Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Phillips, J. M., T. J. Reynolds, et al. (2010). "Decision-based Voter Segmentation: an application for campaign message development." European Journal of Marketing 44(3/4): 310-330.

Rao, Akshay R., (2017). “Red, blue and purple states of mind: segmenting the political marketplace”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27(4): 521-31.

Seawright, David (2005). On a low road: The 2005 Conservative Campaign. Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 21(9/10): 943-957.

Smith, Gareth and Andy Hirst (2001). Strategic political segmentation: a new approach for a new era of political marketing. European Journal of Marketing, vol. 35(9/10): 1058-1073.

Smith, Gareth and John Saunders (1990). ‘The application of marketing to British politics’. Journal of Marketing Management, 5(3): 295–306.

Turcotte, André (2012). ‘Under new management: market intelligence and the Conservative resurrection’. In Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC, 76–90.

Wojciech, Cwaline, Andrzej Falkowski and Bruce Newman (2011), Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations, M.E. Sharpe - Chapter 3 The Campaign Message Development: Segmentation and Positioning on the Voting Market

Yorke, D. and Meehan, S. A., (1996). ACORN in the political marketplace. European Journal of Marketing, vol. 20(8): 73-86.

Audio-visual links

Ethnic targeting

Ethnic targeting in US 2014 mid term elections - US Political Parties Eye Asian American Vote – Voice of America, US 2014 mid terms - 03:34

Targeting Women

"Michelle Obama - Join Women for Obama" 2.12

"Women for Obama Launch House Party" 4.07


Mark Penn US consultant lecture on segmentation and targeting – Authors@google: Mark Penn - Mark Penn speaks at Google about his book "Microtrends" on October 1, 2007. This event took place at Google's Mountain View, CA, headquarters as part of the Authors@Google series – one hour

Website links

Frontline interview with Matthew Dowd about the 2004 Bush re-election presidential campaign

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