Polling & surveys

Academic literature

Asher, Herbert (1995). Polling and the Public: What Every Citizen Should Know. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Bennett, Scott Edward (2017). Applying Public Opinion in Governance. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Birch, Lisa (2012), ‘Does public opinion research matter? The marketing of health policy' Chapter 9 in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Birch, Lisa and Francois Petry (2012) ‘The Use of Public Opinion Research by Government: Insights from American and Canadian Research' Chapter 26 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment,  Routledge.

Braun, Alexander (2012). ‘The role of opinion research in setting campaign strategy' . In Jennifer Lees-Marshment (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing. New York: Routledge, 7–19.

Carthew, Alastair and Simon Winkelmann (eds) (2011) Political polling in asia-pacific. Singapore: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2009). Understanding the market: market intelligence, consultation and participation. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. London and New York: Routledge.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2011) The Political Marketing Game, Houndmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan - Chapter 1 Analysing the market

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2012) ‘Making Space for Leadership: the scope for politicians to choose how they respond to market research' Chapter  27 in the Routledge Handbook of Political Marketing edited by Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Routledge.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2012) ‘The Impact of market research on political decisions and leadership: Practitioners' perspectives' Chapter 6  in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer, Yannick Dufresne, Gregory Eady, Danny Osborne, Cliff van der Linden, and Jack Vowles. (2015). "Vote Compass in the 2014 New Zealand election: hearing the voice of New Zealand voters." Political Science no. 69 (2):94-124.

Marland, Alex (2012), Amateurs versus Professionals: The 1993 and 2006 Canadian federal elections, Chapter 4 in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Matuskova, Anna, Otto Eible and Alexander Braun (2010). ‘The Czech case: a market-oriented party on the rise?’ In Jennifer Lees-Marshment, Jesper Strömbäck and Chris Rudd (eds) Global Political Marketing, London: Routledge, 157–74.

Peisley, M. and I. Ward (2001). "Parties, Governments and Pollsters: A New Form of Patronage?" Australian Journal of Political Science 36(3): 553-565.

Powell, L. and J. Cowart (2013). ch. 11 Political Polling in Political Campaign Communication: Inside and Out. Boston, Pearson.

Rademacher, Eric W. and Alfred J. Tuchfarber (1999). ‘Pre-election polling and political campaigns’. In Bruce Newman (ed.) Handbook of Political Marketing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sherman, Elaine and Leon Schiffman (2002b). Political Marketing Research in the 2000 U.S. Election. Journal of Political Marketing, vol. 1(2/3): 53 - 68.

Turcotte, André (2012). ‘Under new management: market intelligence and the Conservative resurrection’. In Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment (eds) Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC, 76–90.


The nature of political polling

Polling and pollsters – media clip into what they do TVNZ’s behind the scenes in the election series in the 2014 NZ election http://tvnz.co.nz/politics-news/election-2014-pollsters-video-6077384

TIME explains political polls. 2 minutes. September 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RkIeE6riypE

Explanation of political opinion polls - The McKnight Report - explores the significance of political opinion polls, with attention to how they are created, who is included, and how we should interpret the polls in the upcoming election - October 2012. 30 minutes. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eR_3-7CQYI

Reports on polls in different countries

Polls on NZ PM Helen Clark end of third term - "Is Helen Clark tired of being PM?" Nov 6 2008, 2:29 http://www.3news.co.nz/Video/CampbellLive/tabid/367/articleID/78791/cat/84/Default.aspx#videoult.aspx#video

Political research polls in Kenya Jan 31 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSAa6j-XILo

Parody of polling

Yes Prime Minister parody mocks how nature of question can produce different answers - Yes Primeminister - "The Truth Behind Opinion Polls" 1:47 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0ZZJXw4MTA or http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZgyKpkLpccE 

David Flaherty on Polling

Episode 6: David Flaherty on Polling 101 PART 1Political Trade Secrets (August 2015) – Podcast/interview with a Republican pollster on how campaigns can effective use polling, how polling is conducted, and the future of the field.

Episode 8: Polling 101 PART 2 with David FlahertyPolitical Trade Secrets (August 2015) – Podcast/interview with a Republican pollster on how campaigns should plan their polling, how they can get the best out of their strategies, and the challenges facing pollsters in the 2016 GOP primary.


Shear, M. D.  (2009) Polling Helps Obama Frame Message in Health Care Debate July 30, Washington Post, viewed January 18 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/30/AR2009073001547_2.html

Examples of market research firms

Harris interactive (US): http://www.harrisinteractive.com/

Nielsen (US/global): http://www.nielsen-netratings.com/

Gallup (global): http://www.gallup.com/

PSB (Penn, Schoen and Berland associates) (US and worldwide): http://www.psbresearch.com/Abacus Data (Canada)

Ipsos MORI (UK): http://www.ipsos-mori.com/

Opinion leader (UK): http://www.opinionleader.co.uk/

Opinion research (UK): http://www.opinionresearch.com/

UMR: http://www.umr.co.nz (New Zealand) and www.umr.com.au/index.html (Australia)

Gfk NOP (UK): http://www.gfknop.com/customresearch-uk/

ICM (UK): www.icmresearch.co.uk/

YouGov (UK): https://yougov.co.uk/opi/

Digi poll: http://www.digipoll.co.nz/main.html

Colmar Brunton: http://www.colmarbrunton.co.nz/

IDC (global): http://www.idc.com/

Survey USA: http://www.surveyusa.com/

American Research Group: http://www.americanresearchgroup.com/

Mason-Dixon (US): http://www.mason-dixon.com/public/index.cfm

Roy Morgan Research (Australia): http://www.roymorgan.com.au/

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