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Political Consumer Behaviour

Academic Literature

Ahmed, Mirza Ashfaq, Suleman Aziz Lodhi, and Zahoor Ahmad. (2015). "Political Brand Equity Model: The Integration of Political Brands in Voter Choice." Journal of Political Marketing.

Ampofo, L., Anstead, N. & O’Loughlin, B. (2011) “Trust, Confidence, and Credibility” Information, Communication and Society. 14 (6) pp. 850-871.

Apospori, E., G. Avlonitis, et al. (2010). "Political Culture and Perception of Political Marketing Tools: A Cross-Generational Comparison." Journal of Political Marketing 9(1/2): 111-134.

Banaji, S. and D. Buckingham (2009). "The Civic Sell." Information, Communication and Society 12(8): 1197-1223.

Banerjee, Saikat, and Bibek Ray Chaudhuri. (2016). "Influence of Voter Demographics and Newspaper in Shaping Political Party Choice in India: An Empirical Investigation." Journal of Political Marketing.

Bartle, John and Dylan Griffiths (2002). Social-Psychological, economic and marketing models of voting behaviour compared. In Nicholas O'Shaughnessy and Stephan Henneberg (Eds.), The Idea of Political Marketing. London: Praeger.

Ben-Ur, Joseph and Bruce I. Newman (2010). ‘A marketing poll: an innovative approach to prediction, explanation and strategy’. European Journal of Marketing 44(3–4): 515–38.

Brown, Dave (2009). George W., the Marlboro Man and the Messiah: how voters view politics from the consumerist perspective. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Butler, Patrick and Neil Collins (1998). Public Services in Ireland: A Marketing Perspective. Working Paper, Department of Public Administration, National University of Ireland, Cork, no. VII (August).

Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip, Miller, Warren and Donald Stokes (1960). The American Voter. University of Chicago Press.

Capelos, T. (2010). "Feeling the Issue: How Citizens' Affective Reactions and Leadership Perceptions Shape Policy Evaluations." Journal of Political Marketing 9(1/2): 9-33.

Chiu, Kevin Kuan Shun, C. Richard Huston, Hani I. Mesak and T. Hillman Willis (2010). ‘The role of a psychographic approach in segmenting electorates' voting behaviour and party identification’. Journal of Political Marketing, 9: 34–54.

Clarke, John (2006). Consumers, clients or citizens? Politics, policy and practice in the reform of social care. European Societies, vol. 8(3): 423-442.

Cwalina, W, A. Falkowski, et al. (2010). "Towards the development of a cross-cultural model of voter behavior. Comparative analysis of Poland and the US." European Journal of Marketing 44(3-4): 351-368.

de Bussy, N. M. and L. Kelly (2010). "Stakeholders, Politics and Power: Towards and understanding of stakeholder identification and salience in government." Journal of Communication Management 14(4): 289-305.

Delacourt, Susan (2013). Shopping for Votes: How Politicians Choose Us and We Choose Them. Canada: Douglas & McIntyre.

Delacourt, Susan (2016). Shopping for votes: How politicians choose us and we choose them. Madeira Park: Douglas and McIntyre.

Dufresne, Yannick and Alex Marland (2012), ‘The Canadian Political Market and the Rules of the Game' by Chapter 2 in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Gabriel, Y. and T. Lang (2006). The Unmanageable Consumer. London: Sage.

Garzia, Diego. (2013). "Can Candidates' Image Win Elections? A Counterfactual Assessment of Leader Effects in the Second Italian Republic." Journal of Political Marketing no. 12 (4):348-361.

Gidengil, Elisabeth (2012), ‘The Diversity of the Canadian political marketplace', by Chapter 3 in Political Marketing in Canada edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment, UBC

Gorbaniuk, Oleg, Kaja Kusak, Aneta Kogut, and Marta Kustos. (2015). "Dimensions of Political Party “Personality” Perception." Journal of Political Marketing no. 14 (1/2):35-63.

Gouliamos, K. and A. Theocharous (2010). "Political Public Opinion Capital." Journal of Political Marketing 9(1/2): 1-8.

Graham, Katherine A. & Phillips, Susan D. (1997). Citizen Engagement: Beyond the Consumer Revolution. Canadian Public Administration, 40(2), 255-273.

Huang, L. and S. Barlas (2009). "When Will People Tell You Something You Do Not Know?" Advances in Consumer Research 36: 761-2.

Hughes, Andrew, and Stephen Dann (2009) "Political Marketing and Stakeholder Engagement." Marketing Theory 9, no. 2: 243-56.

Johns, Robert, and Heinz Brandenburg. (2014). "Giving voters what they want? Party orientation perceptions and preferences in the British electorate." Party Politics no. 20 (1):89-104.

Key, V. O. (1966). The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in Presidential Voting 1936-60. Belknap Press.

Lane, Robert W. (1991). The market experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lane, Robert W. (2000). The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2004). The Political Marketing Revolution: transforming the government of the UK. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2008). Political marketing and British political parties (2nd edn.). Manchester University Press. Chapter 1 pages 1-12

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer (2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications (1st edition)  Routledge. Chapter 1 The political market and the rise of the political consumer

Lewis, Justin, Inthorn, Sanna, and Karin Wahl-Jorgensen (2005). Citizens or consumers? What the media tell us about political participation. Open University Press.

Lilleker, D. and R. Scullion (Eds.) (2008). Voters or Consumers: Imagining the contemporary electorate. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Lilleker, Darren G (2008). "Shifting Cognitive Gears: Exploring the Boundary between Citizen and Consumer." In: Voters or consumers: imagining the contemporary electorate Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Lilleker, Darren, (2003). Political marketing: the cause of an emerging democratic deficit in Britain? PSA Conference Paper, available at <>.

McDonnell, John, and Paul J. Taylor. (2014). "Value Creation in Political Exchanges: A Qualitative Study." Journal of Political Marketing no. 13 (3):213-232.

Mortimore, Roger (2003). Why politics needs marketing. International Journal of Non-profit and voluntary sector marketing, special issue on Broadening the Concept of Political Marketing, vol. 8(2): 107-121.

Needham, Catherine (2003). Citizen-consumers: New Labour's marketplace democracy. Catalyst.

Needham, Catherine (2004). The citizen and consumer: e-government in the United Kingdom and the United States. In Rachel K. Gibson, Andrea Römmele and Stephen J. Ward (Eds.), Electronic Democracy. Routledge.

Newman, B. and J. Sheth (1987.) A theory of political choice behaviour. New York: Praegar.

Newman, B. (1999). A predictive model of voter behaviour: the repositioning of Bill Clinton. In B. Newman (Ed.), Handbook of political marketing. Sage.

Newman, Peter. (2007). American Voters' Statements of Positive and Negative Preference for Candidates and Parties 1980-2000. Journal of Political Marketing, 6(2), 109-140.

Nielsen, Sigge Winther, and Martin Vinæs Larsen. (2014). "Party brands and voting." Electoral Studies no. 33.

Norris, Pippa (2005) (ed) Critical citizens Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

O'Cass, A. & Pecotich, A. (2005) ‘The Dynamics of Voter Behaviour and Influence Processes in Electoral Markets: A Consumer Behaviour Perspective'. Journal of Business Research vol. 58, pp. 406-413.

Ormrod, R. P. and S. C. Henneberg (2010). "Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation: is the political customer king? (report)." Journal of Marketing Management 26(1-2): 108-130.

Pharr, Susan and Robert Putnam (Eds.) (2000). Disaffected Democracies: What's Troubling the Trilateral Countries? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Phillips, J. M., T. J. Reynolds, et al. (2010). "Decision-based Voter Segmentation: an application for campaign message development." European Journal of Marketing 44(3/4): 310-330.

Pilch, Irena, and Agnieszka Turska-Kawa. (2015). "Voters' personalities and ideal party personality. Evidence from Poland." Romanian Journal of Political Science no. 15 (1):159-184.

Pshizova, S. N. (2009). "From "Civil Society" To "Consumers" Community: Political Consumerism in Comparative Perspective. Part Ii." Polis: politicheskie issledovaniya, 2 : 39-51.

Rao, Akshay (2009). "Marketing issues in politics". Advances in Consumer Research - North American Conference Proceedings 36: 104-07.

Richardson, Brendan (2016). “Corbynmania: Citizen-consumers and the case for an alternative political marketing’. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 15(3): 283-97.

Sandovici, M. E. and T. Davis (2010). "Activism Gone Shopping: an empirical exploration of individual-level determinants of political consumerism and donating." Comparative Sociology 9(3): 328-356.

Savigny, Heather (2008). The Construction of the Political consumer (or politics: what not to consume In D. Lilleker and R. Scullion (Eds.), Voters or Consumers: Imagining the contemporary electorate. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Scammell, M. (2003). Citizen consumers: towards a new marketing of politics? In John Comer and Dick Pels (Eds.), Media and the restyling of politics. Sage, pp. 117-136. Another version is available online at <>.

Schiffman, L., S. T. Thelen, et al. (2010). "Interpersonal and Political Trust: modelling levels of citizens' trust." European Journal of Marketing 44(3/4): 369-381.

Scullion, R. (2010). "The Emergence of the 'Accidental Citizen': Implications for Political Marketing." Journal of Political Marketing 9(4).

Scullion, Richard (2008). The impact of the market on the character of citizenship, and the consequences of this for political engagement. In D. Lilleker and R. Scullion (Eds.), Voters or Consumers: Imagining the contemporary electorate. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Scullion, Richard (2009). The explosive outcome of treating the electorate as customers. In Political Marketing: Principles and Applications, by J. Lees-Marshment. Oxon and New York: Routledge.

Scullion, Richard, and Darren G. Lilleker (2008) "Consumerist Voters and Political Consumers: Reflecting on the Modern Social and Political Landscape." In: Voters or consumers: imagining the contemporary electorate Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Shaw, E. H. (2010). "Marketing Myths and Marketing Realities: A Commentary on the Consumer as Voter, Judge and Jury." Journal of Macromarketing 28.

Slocum, Rachel (2004). Consumer citizens and the Cities for Climate Protection campaign. Environment and Planning, 36: 763-782.

Spring, Joel (2003). Educating the Consumer-Citizen. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vavrus, Mary Douglas. 2007. “The politics of NASCAR dads: Branded media paternity.” Critical Studies in Media Communication 24(3): 245-261

Walsh, Kieron (1994). Marketing and Public Sector Management. European Journal of Marketing,  vol. 28(3): 63-71.

Westbrook, Robert. (1983). Politics as Consumption: Managing the Modern American Election. In R. W. Fox & T. J. J. Lears (Eds.), The Culture of Consumption, (143-173). New York: Pantheon Books.

Winchester, Tiffany M. (2014) Case Study 3.1 ‘What Politicians can learn from Marketing: Approaching the Low-Involvement Voter’ in Political Marketing: Principles and Applications 2nd edition Routledge. 

Winchester, Tiffany M., Wayne Binney, and John Hall. (2014). "Young Adults and Politics: Investigating Factors Influencing Voter Decision Making." Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing no. 26 (3):226-257.

Winchester, Tiffany (2016). “Conceptualizing Usage in Voting Behaviour for Political Marketing: An Application of Consumer Behaviour”. Journal of Political Marketing, 15, 259-84.


Disadvantages of the Political Consumer

Voter/buyer beware Brexit - [4m] Returning Brexit - it doesn't work as advertised Scientists for EU Published on Sep 23, 2016 

"Family Guy - Undecided Voters" 1:39

"How Obama Got Elected: interviews with voters" Nov 16 2008, 9:55

The Rise of the Political Consumer and the Changing Market

Susan Delacourt: A Marketplace of Voters  on The Agenda with Steve Paikin, Oct 16, 2013 Have Canadians traded in the role as citizen for the clout of the consumer? Journalist Susan Delacourt sits down with Steve to discuss her new book, "Shopping for Votes.“ 18m -


Susan Delacourt on political marketing and Shopping for Votes on CBC News Network's Power & Politics, 12m,

"Public Awareness Campaigns" (UK Electoral Commission) series of videos

"Bill Clinton Argues with Voter" (CBS News) May 8 2008, 1:38

Political Techniques and Commercial Techniques

"What Political Campaigns can Teach Business" Nov 25 2008, 6:05

"Thomas Gensemer On How Corporations Can Use The Obama Campaign's Marketing Tactics" Oct 2 2009, 2:57  

"Marketing Strategies for Politics" Feb 6 2008, 2:40  

"Phillip Kotler on Marketing Lessons from Barack Obama's 2008 US election campaign - a BVO interview" Jan 20 2009, 3:09

What political consumers/voters want

NZ Herald newspaper interview with the public on the street - video showing what people think [4m]


Despite millions spent on political marketing, few were influenced to switch their voteMarketing Week (May 2015) – Article highlighting the ineffectiveness of political marketing in the 2015 UK general election at convincing voters to change the way they vote.

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