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Government and Party Consultation

Academic literature

Empirical examples

Barnes, M., J. Newman and H Sullivan, et al. (2007). Power, participation and political renewal : case studies in public participation. Bristol, Policy Press.

Cameron, J. and D. Grant-Smith (2005). "Building citizens: participatory planning practice and a transformative politics of difference." Urban Policy and Research 23(1): 21-36.

Cornwall, A. (2008). "Democratising Engagement: What the UK Can Learn from International Experience." Demos, Apr 29(97).

Culver, K. & Howe, P. (2004) ‘Calling all citizens [in Canada]: the challenges of public consultation', Canadian Public Administration vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 52-75.

Dahlberg, L. (2001). "Extending the public sphere through cyberspace: the case of Minnesota e-democracy." First Monday vol. 6(no. 3).

Dryzek, J. S. & Tucker, A. (2009) ‘Deliberative Innovation to Different Effect: Consensus Conferences in Denmark, France, and the United States'. Public Administration Review, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 864-876.

Dugdale, A. (2008). "New arenas for public life: negotiating health on-line [Paper in special issue: E-Politics: The Australian Experience. Gibson, Rachel and Ward, Stephen (ed).]." Australian Journal of Political Science 43(1): 27-41.

Goodin, Robert E and John S. Dryzek (2009), ‘Making use of minipublics' Chapter 2 in Goodin, Robert E Innovating Democracy: Democratic Theory & Practice After the Deliberative Turn (Oxford UP)

Innes, J. E. and D. E. Booher (2004). "Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century." Planning Theory & Practice, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 419-436, December 2004.

Needham, Catherine (2002). Consultation: a Cure for local government. Parliamentary Affairs, vol. 55(4): 699-714.

Williams, M. (2004) ‘Discursive democracy and New Labour: five ways in which decision-makers manage citizen agendas in public participation initiatives'. Sociological research online, vol. 9, no. 4.


Australian government consultation


In 2008, Kevin Rudd's new Labour Federal Government in Australia held a 2020 summit on the 19 and 20 April. See:


Cheeseman, G. & Smith, H. (2001) ‘Public consultation or political choreography? The Howard government's quest for community views on defence policy'. Australian journal of international affairs, vol. 55, pp. 83-100.


State of Victoria

Brackertz, N. 2006, ‘Hard to Reach? Engagement, Governance and Community Consultation in Victoria', Governments and Communities in Partnership Conference, Centre for Public Policy, Melbourne, available from, 2010.


Catt, H. and M. Murphy (2003). "What voice for the people? Categorising methods of [Australian] public consultation." Australian Journal of Political Science 38(3): 407-421.

Bruns, A. and J Wilson. 2009, ‘Citizen Consultation from Above and Below: the Australian Perspective.' EDEM 2009 - Conference on Electronic Democracy 2009. available in QUT

Kane, J. and P Bishop. 2002, ‘Consultation and Contest: The Danger of Mixing Modes.' Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol 61, no 1.


Scottish government national consultation in 2007


 UK Government consultation

Gordon Brown

Use of citizen Juries

Brown, G. 2007, Speech to the National Council of Voluntary Organizations in Politics 

Maer, L. 2007, Citizen Juries, Parliament and Constitution Centre, HM Government, London, 

Maer, L. 2009, Citizens' Assemblies, Parliament and Constitution Centre, HM Government, London, 

Merrick, J. 2007, Brown's Landmark Citizens' Juries Scheme in Fakery Row, Daily Mail, 

Revill, J. 2007, "Sham" citizens' juries face controls, The Guardian, viewed 18 January 2010, 

Credit Card Summit

In November 2008, Business Secretary Lord Peter Mandleson conducted a summit with credit card providers to discuss ways in which terms and conditions of card agreements could be made more equitable. The summit produced some tangible consequences - all card companies agreed to offer customers a thirty day amnesty period to establish a repayment plan, and offered to provide greater warning to customers for interest rate increases, see:

Charles, J. 2008, Credit Card providers to help indebted borrowers, The Times,

Employment/Jobs Summit

In January and September 2009, the Prime Minister hosted summits with more than 150 leading British employers to discuss ways in which job creation could be bolstered. The September summit saw a special emphasis on youth unemployment as part of the Backing Young Britain campaign, see:

Prime Minister's Office, 2009, PM Welcomes Employers' Support at Job Summit, 

National Security Forum

In March 2009, the Brown government established a 12-member private body consisting of leading national security experts to challenge government thinking on matters such as terrorism, organized crime, climate change, and international economic change. The makeup of the forum contains leading diplomats, internal development experts, policy advisors, and business leaders, see:

Baker, L. 2009, UK forms new security body, weighs financial crisis, Reuters, viewed February 12 2010,


US goverment consultation

President Obama

Health Care Community Discussions 

In March 2009, the White House hosted a Health Care Forum with over 150 leading figures - including those from politics, unions, and the medical and insurance industries - to provide solutions on health care reform, see:

Department of Health and Human Services 2009, Americans Speak on Health Care Reform: A Report on Health Care and Community Discussions, Washington, DC, viewed 15 February 2010,

White House Jobs Forum

In December 2009, the President convened a summit with leading business figures to discuss ideas on how to create jobs and facilitate economic growth. In January 2010, a report on the summit was released by Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett outlining ideas from the summit which may be implemented in the future, see:

Lee, J. 2010, White House Jobs Forum: The Final Report and Follow-Up, The White House, viewed 10 February 2010,

Modernizing Government Forum

In January 2010, the White House conducted a forum with fifty private-sector leaders to discuss the best practices to streamline federal operations and improve frontline service delivery. Ideas garnered from this forum were later published on the White House website, along with videos of all "breakout sessions" conducted, see:

Lee, J. 2010, What We Saw and Heard at the Modernizing Government Forum, The White House, viewed 10 Feburary 2010, <>

Presidential Memorandum Outlining Commitment for Open Government and Greater Public Enagement

Obama, B. 2009, Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, The White House, viewed 10 February 2010, <>

Clean Energy Forum

The White House conducted a forum in November 2009 to assist in the development of an energy plan that reduces dependence on foreign oil and facilitates in ‘green' job creation. Over 164 stakeholders - including sportspersons, business leaders, conservationists, and leaders from the Native American community - participated in the event. Video from the forum was then later posted online, see:

Salazar, K. 2009, Yesterday's Clean Energy Forum, The White House, viewed 10 February 2010, <>

Distracted Driving Summit

In October 2009, over 250 safety experts, industry representatives and members of the public gathered to discuss solutions on how to prevent accidents caused by distracted driving. This summit was live-streamed to the public and updates were made available on Twitter. See: 

Stanton, K. 2009. Distracted Driving Summit Continues, The White House, viewed 10 February 2010, 

GreenGov Challenge

The White House 2009, GreenGov Challenge 

Office of Public Engagement

The White House 2009, President Launches the Office of Public Engagement: A New Name, Mission for the White House Liaison Office, viewed 10 February 2010, <>

Fiscal Responsibility Summit

In February 2009, the President hosted a Fiscal Responsibility Summit which saw leading political and economic figures gather to discuss ideas on how to best reduce the federal income and budget deficits. In March 2009, ideas from the summit were compiled into a report by Office and Management Budget Director Peter Orszag:

Croft, C. 2009, Fiscal Responsibility Summit Report, The White House, viewed 10 February 2010,

Middle Class Taskforce Roundtables

Vice President Joe Biden - in his capacity as head of the Middle Class Taskforce - has hosted a series of public roundtable discussions with industry figures to garner solutions on the economic and health care problems facing America. For instance, in June 2009 Biden held a roundtable with business leaders on job creation, and in July 2009 conducted a roundtable with small business owners on health care reform. See:

The White House 2009, Vice President Biden Hosts Roundtable with Business Leaders on Recovery Act, viewed 10 February 2010,  

The White House 2009, Vice President Biden to Host Middle Class Task Force Roundtable Discussion with Small Business Leaders on the Costs of Health Care, viewed 10 February 2010, 

Citizens' Briefing Book

The White House 2009, Citizens' Briefing Book, 


US generally

Scott, J. 2006, ‘E the people: do US Municipal Government Websites support public involvement?', Public Administration Review, May-June 2006.

NCLB Listening and Learning Tour

 U.S. Department of Education. Across the country and online, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is seeking the best ideas for the next generation of school reform.

New Zealand

New Zealand Labour open government project, 2010:

OpenLabour NZ:

More explanation at:

Final report on Open Labour NZ:


Auckland City Council People's Panel 


Consultation on the "Super City" changes to Auckland Governance, 2009-10

Making Auckland Greater: The Government's decisions on Auckland Governance, available from, accessed on May 1, 2010. Auckland Transition Agency ‘making Auckland greater' website

‘keeping people informed' (lists most of the consultative steps various agencies have taken)

"Perceptions of Regional Governance" Auckland City Council Regional Governance Research Summary, Jan 2010

and other documents available from

Data from a survey of Rodney residents about Super City


Other Countries

Worldwide views on global warming, a project which the Danish Board of technology initiated: see

Northern Ireland

Murray, M. G. Fagan. and P McCusker. 2009, ‘Measuring Horizontal Governance: a review of public consultation by the Northern Ireland government between 2000 and 2004.' Policy & Politics, vol 37, no 4.


Phillips, S. and Orsini, M. 2002, ‘Mapping the links: Citizen Involvement in the Policy Process', Canadian Policy Research Networks, available from, 2010.the


Worldwide views on global warming, a project which the Danish Board of technology initiated: see


Kevin Rudd Australian Labor Government Australia 2020

Advert for the Australian 2020 summit:
ABC report on the Australian 2020 summit:

US President Obama - Public Consultations

Online Town Hall Meetings is Open for Questions, March 2009, 1:27

Online Town Hall: the economy, March 2009, 1:13:49

Open for Questions: the State of the Union, Jan 2010, 48:57

Troop Town Hall August 2009, 1:26

Health Care Community Discussions

Jan 2009, 5:53

Your Turn: Join the National Discussion, June 2009, 1:37

Citizens Briefing Book

President Introduces the Office of Public Engagement, May 2009, 2:19

Dr. Steve Chu (energy) responds to Citizens Briefing Book ideas, January 2009, 13:40

Arne Duncan (education) responds to Citizens Briefing Book ideas, January 2009, 4:33


GreenGov Challenge Top Ideas, November 2009, 28:55

Town Hall Meetings

White House on Main Street, Elyria Ohio, January 2010, 1:13:26

UK PM Brown Public Consultations

Citizen Juries

Carers' Issues in Leeds, January 2008, 5:53

Largest Ever NHS Consultation, September 2007, 1:54

Crime, September 2007, 1:42

"A New Type of Politics", September 2007, 8:17

"Your Voice"

"Your Voice Launch", May 2008, 2:13

Progressive Governance Discussion

PM and the Big Issues, April 2008, 0:48

See also

Ministerial Webchats

Shahid Malik webchat, September 2009, 1:46

Ann Keen, Health Minister, August 2008, 0:48

Public Engagement Events (also serve as a demonstration of delivery)

Cabinet in Liverpool, January 2009, 3:20

Public Q & A Sessions

The PM in Kent, November 2009, 6:04


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